＜Inside N. Korea＞ Expansion of the market economy as the driving force behind social transformation–based on sources from inside N.Korea. (PART3) State-owned transportation is in a miserable state. by Jiro Ishimaru
◆ Transportation and traffic have greatly increased and developed due to marketization.
3-1 State-owned transportation has become dysfunctional
For many years the train system had been the primary means of transport in North Korea. City buses, trolley buses, the subway in Pyongyang, had been a form of short form transportation and it was a state-owned enterprise. It took most of the responsibility for transporting the country’s citizens. Long-distance buses openly connecting each city on a daily basis were also prevalent, including trucks carrying passengers in the back.
As market activity became vibrant, people started to go to distant places to bring items for their businesses. With a demand for more transport, traffic exploded while the vested state-owned transport became outdated and under-developed. Now, the marketized transportation system has increased its footprint, playing an essential role for the people in North Korea to get around the country.
Next page: A train stopped due to the power shortage. Passengers get off the train and wash faces using water at the street gutter.